A Richmond judge sets a very dangerous precedent by allowing law enforcement officials to testify as experts on gang tattoos.
Guilt by association. Or, more accurately, impeachment by implied association - without even actual proof of association. As one guy asked me when I told him what the spiderweb is supposed to mean on the elbows of white clients, "How many of them are posers?"
I don't know. I can't answer that question from anything other than my subjective experiences and inferences. I suspect most haven't "earned" the tattoo. And I pretty much guarantee that the police "experts" cannot answer that question with any kind of objective, statistically based study either.